Essentially, one builds an electrical heating unit consisting of three infrared heat lamps mounted on a piece of wood or other material. You will then place this unit in a sauna enclosure of your choice, or even in a small bathroom or small closet.
The simplest enclosure is a frame covered with fabric. Plans for a frame enclosure follow the plans for the electrical unit.
1. ELECTRICAL HEATING UNIT PLANS
An excellent video of a very similar electrical heating unit is available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znxsffR1Zys.
á Three or four
250-watt, reddish Òheat bulbsÓ. These are sold at many hardware stores
and cost about $6-15 US dollars each.
Standard brands of these lamps include Philips, General Electric, Sylvania, Havel-Sli, Feat and others. I prefer ones with brass screw bases, which most of them have.
Westinghouse lamps are somewhat acceptable. At the time of this update (2013) they may be coating their lamps with Teflon, which reduces the danger of breakage, but the lamps could outgas somewhat when heated. Do not use clear heat lamps as their spectrum is not correct.
á Three or four ceramic or plastic lamp sockets designed for 250-watt bulbs. Sockets are available that wire from the front or from the back. Another type of socket unscrews so that one places half the socket behind a thin piece of wood or metal.
á Fifteen feet of heavy lamp cord. I like to use a standard 15-foot extension cord, as it comes with a male plug attached. I then simply cut off the female plug on the extension cord. The cord need not be grounded.
á A switch or timer-switch capable of handling seven amps. You may use a standard wall switch with a box and switch cover plate. Other types of switches are rocker, push button or toggle switches. You may also use a mechanical or electronic timer-switch, although they cost about $20-50.00 more. Do not use a dimmer switch as they often emit strong electromagnetic fields.
á A piece of hardware cloth or welded wire mesh about 15" by 31". This will be bent around the lamps as a guard to prevent anything from touching them. The openings of the hardware cloth or wire mesh should be ¼ to ½ inch.
á Four wood screws and four 3/16" x 1" fender washers. These are to fasten the lamp guard to the board or enclosure. You could also use a staple gun to secure the guard to the wood.
á The board to mount the sockets on should be about 12Ó high and 24Ó wide. The extra width is to mount the switch
to one side of the lamps.
The board can be of solid wood, masonite, veneer or plywood. If you decide to use 2-piece sockets that mount through a hole in the board, you must use a thin board such as veneer or masonite.
For chemically sensitive people, it could be of sheet metal or hard plastic like Lucite it one is not sensitive to this material. To avoid all outgassing, use a metallic material or a poplar, oak or fir shelf board.
To hide the wiring, you can use a second thin board that will mount behind the first one. This is not absolutely necessary, however. How to do this is illustrated in the youtube video mentioned at the beginning of this web page.
á 2 wood screws or machine screws and nuts for mounting the switch to a board or enclosure. Hardware to mount the sockets to the board are not necessary if your use two-piece sockets and a thin board. Six wood screws are needed to attach the sockets to the board if you use a solid wood board and sockets that simply screw to the board.
Tools required include a screwdriver, wire cutters, and a drill to cut holes in the board for wires, sockets and mounting screws.
Warning #1. Use extreme care when assembling, wiring and using any electrical
device of your own design. The author cannot be responsible for misuse of a
sauna, poor construction techniques or improper wiring that can cause fires or
Accidents happen in saunas. Always move slowly and carefully near a sauna. Never allow young children to play in or use a sauna unaccompanied.
Warning #2: Please do not alter this design if you want the best results. Many people create their own sauna with lamps in the corners, or on several sides, or on the ceiling. These are not acceptable designs for various reasons. Please email me if you must before deciding to alter the suggested design. If you have a brilliant idea, I will add it to this website. However, most details have been worked out for four years and are the best possible way to build the unit.
The only possible modifications I suggest is that you may design the unit:
1) with four instead of three lamps, with the fourth lamp near your knees or even feet. This will heat up faster and provide more infrared.
2) you can design
the unit so you can lie down inside, instead of sitting. This is necessary for people who are
disabled or weak and cannot sit for the half hour needed for a sauna session. The book, Sauna Therapy, contains
details for modifying the design for laying down in the sauna. However, sitting is quite a bit better,
in my view, if sitting is possible for the patient.
Mount the sockets to the board or enclosure in a triangle shape (see the diagram at the end of this section). If you are using a board that is 12Ó high by 24Ó wide, the top socket is placed in the center, 2Ó from the top of the board. The lower sockets are mounted two inches from the bottom of the board and 9 to 10Ó apart.
Place the switch or timer-switch as far away from the lamps as possible, either to one side or above them.
Wire the sockets in parallel. (See diagram below.) The lamps will not work properly if the sockets are wired in series. When wiring the sockets, one need not cut the lamp cord. It may be faster to connect two wires to one socket and then run the cord to the next socket. Separate the wires at the next socket, strip the wires just where the terminal screws are and screw down the terminals over the wires. Then continue similarly to the third socket. Run the wires to the switch. A fuse is optional.
For the protective guard in front of the lamps, bend the hardware cloth into a C shape with 1" flanges at each end. It is easiest to bend it over a sharp edge of a table or desk. Make the bends in the 31Ó length, so the 15Ó dimension of the hardware cloth becomes the width of the guard.
First bend the 31" piece of mesh 90¡ at 1". Make another 90¡ bend at 9", another at 22" and another at 30". Make all bends in the same direction. This should form a C shape with 1" flanges at each end for fastening to the wood with wood screws and large washers, two on the bottom and two on top.
To mount the board in an enclosure, you may drill holes in the corners for screws. If you will mount the electrical unit on a PVC pipe frame, you will need mounting holes for four 3/4Ó pipe straps. Click here to view a wiring diagram of the electrical unit or view it below:
Mounting and Ventilation. If oneÕs unit is for a bathroom or closet, secure it to a wall so it will not fall over if accidentally bumped. In a bathroom tub area, the unit can be hung from the shower pipe. However, also tie it back so it will not move.
If you will mount it in a wooden or other enclosure, you can secure it using four wood screws, one in each corner. To mount to a PVC pipe frame, use four pipe straps.
Ventilation can be important. Most bathrooms have ventilation. In a closet, the door may not fit tightly at the top. If necessary, open the door slightly every 10 minutes or so as needed to provide ventilation. If building an enclosure, leave a 1" wide opening across the top at the front and back.
Cautions and Disclaimer
Observe all cautions as with any electrical appliance exposed to heat and moisture. Do not touch the lamps during use, or let water, sweat, towels or anything touch them. I will repeat, accidents can happen in saunas. Always move slowly and carefully. Never allow young children to play in or use a sauna unaccompanied. The author cannot be responsible for misuse of a sauna or poor construction.
2. SAUNA FRAME ENCLOSURE PLANS
The electrical heat unit described above may be mounted in any suitable enclosure including a small closet, wooden box, frame enclosure or other space. If the space is larger than about 4' by 4' and 5'- 6' high, it will likely need an auxiliary heater or another heat lamp to bring the sauna to 110¡ F. within 20-30 minutes. For much more information about enclosures, see Chapter 12 of the book, Sauna Therapy
An excellent inexpensive enclosure
suitable for apartments and portable use consists of a frame over which one
places blankets, a cloth drop cloth or other fabric. It works well,
though it may be a bit delicate and requires care in its use. The frame
parts cost less than $50.00.
Materials. The frame requires five 10-foot sticks of the thicker (SCH 40, 480 PSI) 1-inch white PVC pipe or 34Ó PVC pipe. Either size will work fine. Also required are four PVC T-connectors and eight PVC elbows of the same size as your PVC pipe (either 1Ó or ¾Ó ). You will also need four pipe clamps (either ¾Ó or 1Ó) and eight machine screws and nuts to fasten the clamps to the lamp unit. PVC cement is not needed.
If you are chemically sensitive and are concerned about using PVC pipe, you could build the frame of some other material. For example, building supply stores sell long pieces of L-shaped, thin steel used for stucco walls. It is inexpensive and already has holes in it along its length. It can be cut with tin snips and could be used to make a metal frame. Wood, such as pieces of 2Óx 2Ó or 2Ó x 4Ó, could also be used for the frame members.
Tools required are a hack saw or pipe cutter to cut PVC pipe, tape measure and a rubber hammer to tap pieces together if they are stiff. No PVC glue is needed.
enclosure is designed to be connected to an electrical unit that contains the
lamps with guards over them for safety and with all safety requirements needed
for any home appliance or piece of equipment. One forces the PVC frame to
narrow where it connects to the board. It will flare out and become wider
as one moves away from the board. The design shown is five feet high,
high enough for most people.
PVC Pipe Enclosure Assembly. Cut the PVC pipe into four 5-foot sections, six 4-foot sections and four 3-inch sections. Assemble as shown. Push pipe sections into the connectors and use a rubber hammer to gently tap the pipe firmly into the connectors. Assembling the unit on a hard floor will help, as one can place the pipe on the floor when tapping them with a hammer. No cement should be necessary unless pipe is very loose in the connectors. The order of assembly of the sections does not matter. Click here to view a diagram of the sauna frame.
Secure a board about 24 inches wide containing the lamp sockets to the PVC frame with four 1-inch pipe clamps. The frame will bend to accommodate the size of the board. In fact, this adds rigidity to the structure. The lamp height will be adjustable by moving the board up or down along the vertical PVC pipe sections. The upper lamp should be at chest height when sitting, and the lower lamps at abdomen height.
3. COVERING THE FRAME. You may cover the frame with two queen or king-size blankets, fabric such as fleece, flannel or velour, quilts, comforters or canvas. A canvas painter's drop cloth that is 14Õ x 24Õ is sold at Home Depot and works beautifully as long as the width of the frame is reduced to three-foot wide instead of 4-foot wide.
To fasten fabric or blankets to the frame, an excellent way is to buy large (2Ó) paper clasps, sometimes called butterfly clips, at an office supply store. These work very well. One could also use large safety pins or clothespins to hold the blankets or fabric in place. It is important that the door area closes tightly. It can consist of a flap of canvas or other material, or a curtain made of fabric. Clips or clothespins can hold it closed, if needed.
4. AN OUTDOOR THERMOMETER THAT READS UP TO 120 DEGREES F. This can be a standard, inexpensive outdoor thermometer sold in hardware stores. It is important to have to make sure your sauna is at the right temperature, which is between 110 and 120 degrees F. Attach the thermometer to the frame at about eye level when sitting down (about 3-4 feet off the ground).
If the sauna is well-insulated, it should not take more than about 15 minutes to heat to 110 degrees F. when the sauna is placed in a room at standard room temperature. If you will place the sauna in a cold garage or other cold room, it needs to be insulated better in order to heat up properly.
5. TOWELS UNDER THE ENCLOSURE. This enclosure design does not have a floor. Instead, just place a few towels under the stool where you will sit. The sauna is dry, so it will not make a mess. However, sweat will drip do it is wise to cover the floor.
6. A STOOL TO SIT ON. You will also need a small stool or chair without a back to sit on. A shower stool works well. The stool or chair may be of metal, wood or plastic, and could even be painted. The bottom part of the sauna does not get too hot, so outgassing is usually not a problem. A fancy stool that rotates is nice, but not necessary.
Warnings: Be sure to have a guard in front of the lamps to protect the bather from touching the hot lamps. Also, be sure that all fabric or blankets are 12 inches or more from the heat lamps to avoid a fire hazard. Pull blankets or fabric tight near the lamps so they do not hang loosely near the lamps. Avoid leaving the lamps on when no one is present, except to pre-heat the sauna.
With your electrical heat unit, frame enclosure and a stool to sit on, you are ready to use your sauna. You can pre-heat it for 10 or 15 minutes, or you can enter it when it is cold and you will warm up with the sauna.
Wear a bathing suit or less, so the light strikes your skin. Rotate your body 90 degrees every 5 minutes or so to let the infrared penetrate the body evenly. I do not recommend staring at the lamps, though they should be safe to look at. (Wear sunglasses if you are very sensitive to the light.) Wipe off sweat with a small towel.
Please never stay in a sauna more than 20 minutes, at first, and extend the time in the sauna up to 50 minutes or so only as you begin to sweat, which can take days or weeks to occur. Leave the sauna immediately if you feel very weak, if your heart starts racing, or if your face turns very red.