by Lawrence Wilson, MD
The following is an introduction to a large subject. The following is an excerpt from the book, Sauna Therapy, also available on this site. This provides much more depth, more complete plans, protocols, cautions, case histories and much more.
TYPES OF SAUNAS
Four basic ways to heat up a sauna exist.
Traditional saunas consist of a small room or space that is heated with a heater
that sits in one corner. The
heater is powered by electricity, gas, wood or other fuel. In traditional native American sweat
lodges, the space is heated with hot rocks that were previously placed in a
fire. This type of sauna uses a
lot of electricity or gas, and must be very hot to work properly.
Š Far infrared saunas use metallic, ceramic or black carbon elements for heating that mainly emit in the far infrared range. The electric heating elements are spread around the sauna space. Unfortunately, all of these far infrared saunas give off stray electromagnetic fields that may be extremely harmful. Please avoid all far infrared saunas for this reason.
Š Near infrared emitter saunas. A few companies claim to offer near infrared saunas that use emitters. I would avoid these, as I believe they are very similar to the far infrared type of sauna.
Š Near infrared lamp saunas use incandescent reddish ‘heat lamps’ for heating. The lamps are very inexpensive and found at most hardware stores. The bulbs emit mainly near infrared energy, with a bit of middle infrared as well. This type of sauna also provides warming and stimulating color therapy. The lights emit a small amount of red, orange and yellow visible light. These particular frequencies draw energy downward in the body and can assist the digestive and eliminative organs to some degree.
While traditional saunas require high temperatures for copious sweating, infrared penetrates the skin and heats from the inside as well as on the skin. This means the air temperature in the sauna can remain much cooler, yet one sweats plenty at this lower, more comfortable temperature.
The infrared lamp sauna penetrates deepest due to the fact that the heat source is all concentrated in a small area, and not due to the frequencies of the energy used. The rays may penetrate up to three inches or so, so the air temperature can stay coolest of all the types of saunas with the same effectiveness. While some people like the intense heat of the traditional sauna, many find it difficult to tolerate, especially those when feeling ill.
Near infrared is an antioxidant nutrient, activates the cells, supports metabolic processes and decouples toxins from water molecules. Near infrared is helpful for wound healing and cellular regeneration as well. Near infrared frequencies can also act as amplifiers of other frequencies that are in the vicinity of the heat lamps.
THE BENEFITS OF INFRARED LAMP SAUNA THERAPY
Near infrared sauna therapy is one of the least costly, safest and most powerful ways to eliminate toxic metals, toxic chemicals and chronic infections. The benefits include:
Š Skin rejuvenation. Sauna use slowly restores elimination through the skin. The skin is the largest organ of the body and a major eliminative channel. In most people, it is inactive, congested and toxic. Sun exposure, use of synthetic clothing, bathing in chlorinated water and exposure to hundreds of chemicals damage the skin. Excessive sympathetic nervous system activity and emotions such as fear, anger and guilt cause blood to be withdrawn from the skin, contributing to inactivity of the skin.
Enhanced sweating. Sweating in a sauna is a by-product of applying heat to the
body. The sweating process gently
and safely helps eliminate all heavy metals and toxic chemicals. Medical studies demonstrate that most
toxins can be eliminated through the skin, relieving the burden on the kidneys
and liver. Sweating
increases dramatically in most people after several months of daily sauna use.
Sweating during exercise is not nearly as effective for detoxification because exercise activates the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic nervous activity inhibits toxin elimination.
Š Exercise benefits. Saunas provide many of the benefits of exercise with much less expenditure of energy. These include enhanced circulation and oxidation of the tissues. Repeated sauna use can lower elevated blood pressure and improve the elasticity of the arteries. Saunas are most helpful for cardiovascular rehabilitation, arthritis, allergies, skin conditions and chemical sensitivity.
Š Decongesting the internal organs. Heating the body powerfully shunts blood toward the skin to dissipate heat. This decongests the internal organs and greatly stimulates circulation. Sinuses, joints and many other tissues benefit greatly.
Š Fever therapy (hyperthermia) for infections. Raising body temperature powerfully assists the body to kill bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. Many people have a low body temperature and, for this reason, cannot get rid of chronic infections. Common sites of infections are the sinuses, ears, eyes, bladder, throat and intestines.
Š Tumors, radiation poisoning and mutated cells. Hyperthermia also helps kill other types of abnormal cells. Tumors, for example, tolerate heat poorly. Raising body temperature hastens their death. Though not a conventional method, hyperthermia is a well-researched therapy for cancer. Heat also disables or kills cells mutated by radiation or damaged by other toxins.
Š Inhibiting the sympathetic nervous system. This is tremendous benefit not offered by many therapies of any kind. It enables the body to relax, heal and regenerate itself much faster, causing recovery from many types of ailments.
Š Oxygenating and hydrating the cells and organs, and improving circulation.
Š Near infrared benefits. These are many. They are discussed in some detail in another article on this website entitled The Benefits of Near Infrared Energy.
Š Other benefits. Many other benefits are offered by all saunas, and by infrared and the near infrared sauna in particular. These are described in much more detail in the book, Sauna Therapy, and in other articles on this website.
SUPERVISION AND SAFETY
Supervision during a sauna therapy program is helpful. The presence of an attendant or friend close by is also most helpful if you have any type of health condition.
Removing drugs from tissue storage may cause flashbacks or temporary drug effects, the same as when you took the drug. If you have used LSD or other psychotropic drugs, have an attendant near by, as a few have experienced flashbacks or even full-blown LSD trips. In addition, follow the basic safety procedures below:
Š Do not spend more than 20 minutes daily in a near infrared lamp sauna unless you are also on a complete nutritional balancing program based on a properly performed and correctly interpreted hair mineral test.
Š Do not take high-dose niacin and do not exercise before using the sauna. Some doctors recommend this because it is the method used in the Hubbard ‘Clear’ sauna detoxification program. However, we find that the niacin is very toxic at high doses. It remains in the body for years, literally. Also, exercise stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, which is ultimately not helpful in our view.
Š Drink 8-16 ounces of only spring water before a sauna session. I do not recommend any other type of drinking water at this time.
To replace minerals lost in sweating, I only recommend taking kelp. The kelp must be Nature’s Way brand, or Frontier Herbs
granules or powder because some kelp is toxic. Take up to 4000 mg daily. Also, use a good quality sea salt used with cooking. Do not put sea salt in your drinking
I do not recommend any other mineral supplements, electrolyte products or ‘mineral cocktails’ at this time. Most other mineral products are not natural supplements, so they are missing many minerals. Others that are from various earth sources contain too many toxic metals. Kelp contains some toxic metals, but is high in alginates that help to bind and remove the toxic substances in the kelp.
Š To prepare for your sauna session, you may preheat a near infrared sauna to about 100 degrees F. or about 40 degrees C. Do not wear much clothing in a near infrared sauna so that the rays will penetrate the skin. A bikini bathing suit is fine, however, if needed. Otherwise do not wear clothing.
Begin with only 20 minutes in the sauna. If youa re weak, ill or very heat
sensitive, begin with 15 minutes or less in the sauna. Some people love the sauna and want to
spend more time in it. Do not do
this initially!! It causes too
many reactions. After a few weeks,
only if you feel well enough to do so, you may slowly increase to 30 or even 40
minutes. Never begin with sessions
longer than 20-minutes once a day because this can cause massive healing
reactions that are unpleasant and even dangerous.
Š Wipe off your sweat every few minutes with a small towel.
Always leave a sauna at
once if you feel very faint, if you stop sweating, if your face turns bright
red, or if your heart starts to race.
This indicates overheating or heat stroke.
Š After a sauna session, shower off or you can towel off if you do not have time for a shower, although showering is best. Use as little soap as needed, and only a natural soap. An excellent soap and shampoo is J.R. Liggett’s Bar Shampoo, which can be used as a soap as well. It is available in health food stores or on the internet.
Š Always relax after a sauna session to allow the body to readjust. Always rest for 10 to 15 minutes after a sauna session. Do not go right back to daily activities.
It is best to use a sauna
first thing in the morning or the last thing at night. These are the times one is most relaxed
and it will be most effective.
The more one relaxes, the more one will sweat.
Always consult a health
professional if you have a chronic illness and are not sure about sauna
use. However, we have found no
problems with using a sauna with people who have diabetes, heart disease and
other chronic illnesses, provided they
follow the instructions above.
Near infrared sauna sessions are fabulous for those with cancer. To read more about this, read Cancer And AlternativeTherapies.
Š Pregnant women and children under five should avoid near infrared lamp saunas. The infrared energy is a little hard on the developing fetus. Young children do not sweat as well, and can easily become dehydrated. For these reasons, I would avoid lamp sauna therapy with babies and children under 5 in most circumstances.
Children, at least up to
the age of 10, must be accompanied by an adult in a sauna.
medication while taking saunas, unless directed otherwise.
Use a sauna twice a week to
twice a day. However, always begin
with a maximum of one session daily for no more than twenty minutes. If one is very debilitated, begin with
one session a week. Work up to
daily use as you are able to do so.
Healing reactions occur
from sauna use. These are
temporary symptoms that occur as toxic substances are eliminated and chronic
infections heal. Symptoms vary
from mild odors, tastes or rashes are very common and usually pass
quickly. Some people feel
great fatigue after sessions and this is normal. Some people have bowel changes, aches, pains or
Another type of healing
reaction is that old infections may flare up as they are healed due to repeated
sauna use. Usually only rest and
natural remedies are needed to help infections resolve faster.
Š Almost all healing symptoms are benign and will pass quickly. Consult a knowledgeable practitioner if any cause concern.
Š A few people claim that near infrared rays from reddish heat lamps are dangerous. I do not recommend staring at the bulbs. However, I find the rays from the near infrared lamps to be very safe, and so does the manufacturer of the lamps. Such claims may only be an attempt to dissuade people from this excellent therapy. Here is a rebuttal to this claim: http://www.idw-online.de/pages/de/news379479.
Š Much more about sauna protocols, cautions, contraindications and other information is found in the textbook, Sauna Therapy, by Dr. Wilson, available from Amazon.com or from other book sellers.
GETTING STARTED WITH A SAUNA
I would like to assist everyone to have a near infrared sauna in their home to be used daily. Here are several options:
1. Buy a near infrared sauna from several sauna builders around the nation and the world. Click here for a list of those offering near infrared saunas.
2. Build your own near infrared sauna. This website offers:
3. Convert a traditional sauna or a far infrared sauna to a near infrared light sauna. See below for directions.
4. If you cannot afford a sauna, then at least use a red heat lamp daily on your abdomen and back. Click here to read about single lamp therapy.
near infrared light sauna offers wonderful benefits not available in a
traditional or far infrared type of sauna including color therapy,
near-infrared healing energy and other beneficial frequencies.
If you already own a traditional sauna or a far infrared sauna and wish to convert it by adding the infrared heat lamps, this can be done in most cases. There are a few requirements and a few cautions.
1.Your sauna needs to be close to or greater than 48 inches long in one dimension. This way you will be sure to be able to sit far enough away from the lamps for comfort. You could make a hole in the wall of the sauna and recess the lamps, but this is much harder and may not work well.
2. We recommend modifying the bench arrangement in a
traditional or far infrared sauna. Thus, the bench must be removable for
the best conversion although this is not absolutely necessary.
Since one needs to rotate in the electric light sauna, it is best to remove the bench and place a small bench in the middle of the sauna so you can rotate in all directions most easily.
You may still use the original heating system that came with your sauna to help preheat your sauna. Once it has warmed up, you can leave it on or perhaps just use the lamps for heating.
NOTES ON THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INFRARED HEAT LAMPS AND SIMPLE RED LIGHT BULBS
It is the infrared range, not the red color that is important. Red light, in fact, is harmful, but not infrared. There is a little red in the infrared heat lamps, but not much, in fact. It is mostly orange and yellow with a little red and mostly infrared coming from the lamps. This is subtle but important to point out.
I spoke with a woman who experienced this. She shined a red heat lamp on her puppies and noticed how calm and happy they became. Then she used just a red lamp from the store. Then animals did not like it at all. She concluded there was a difference in the lights, but she did not know what it was.
Here is the difference. Infrared looks like red to the eye. It is different, however, and the heat lamp is “tuned” to produce a lot of infrared with a special filament design. In contrast, a red light bulb is just an incandescent lamp with a red filter. They are quite opposite in their effects.
Infrared is healing, while red is highly irritating and stimulating. If one sat in sauna with just red lights, many would hate the sauna. Instead, most people report they are calmed and healed by the infrared sauna frequencies. The small bit of red light does not bother them.
To purchase a near infrared lamp sauna, we list several companies that sell them on a separate page mentioned below.
Other pages on this website that relate to sauna therapy include:
Aaland, M., Sweat, Capra Press, 1978.
Beard, J. The Enzyme Treatment of Cancer, London, Chatto and Windus, 1911.
Cowen, T. and McGuire, J., Spas & Hot Tubs, Saunas and Home Gyms, Creative Homeowner Press, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1988.
Casdorph, H.R. and Walker, M., Toxic Metal Syndrome, Avery Publishing Group, NY, 1995.
Dennis, C., Colorology, Rainbows Unlimited, Clearwater, FL, 1994.
Douglas, W.C., Into the Light, Second Opinion Publishing, Dunwoody, GA, 1993.
Dreosti, I.E. and Smith, R.M., ed., Neurobiology of the Trace Elements, Vol. 1 & 2, The Humana Press, NJ, 1983.
Flickstein, A., Infrared Thermal System for Whole-body Regenerative Radiant Therapy, Dascom Graphics, Santa Fe Springs, 1997.
Finnish Medical Society, Sauna and Your Health: Annals of Clinical Research, 16 technical articles distributed by the Sauna Society of America, 1988.
Finnish Sauna Society, Sauna Studies, professional papers from the 6th International Sauna Congress of 1974, distributed by the Sauna Society of America.
Gerson, M., A Cancer Therapy - Results of 50 Cases, Totality Books, CA, 1958,1977.
Guyton, A., Textbook of Medical Physiology, 6th edition, W. B. Saunders Company, 1981.
Hollander, C., How to Build a Sauna, Drake, New York, 1978.
Hubbard, L.R., Clear Body, Clear Mind, Bridge Publications, Los Angeles, Ca.
Jensen, B., Doctor-Patient Handbook, BiWorld Publishers, Inc., UT, 1976.
Johnson, T. and Miller, T., The Sauna Book, Harper and Row, New York, 1977.
Kervan, L.C., Biological Transmutations, adapted by Michel Abehsera, Swan House Publishing, Binghampton, NY, 1972. (Now published by Beekman Publishers, Inc, Woodstock, NY)
Koch, W.F., The Survival Factor in Neoplastic and Viral Diseases, William F. Koch, 1961.
Kukreja, R.C., ed., Heat Shock Proteins in Myocardial Protection, Landes Bioscience, 2000.
Kutsky, R., Handbook of Vitamins, Minerals and Hormones, 2nd edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981.
Lehmann, J.F., Therapeutic Heat and Cold, 4th ed., Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 1990.
McVicker, M., Sauna Detoxification Therapy, McFarland & Co., Jefferson, NC, 1997.
Pfeiffer, C., Mental and Elemental Nutrients, Keats Publishing, New Canaan CT, 1975.
Rogers, S.A., Tired or Toxic, Prestige Publishers, 1990. (Also Detoxify or Die, 2002)
Roy, R., The Sauna, Chelsea Green Publishing Company, White River Junction, VT, 1996.
Takada, K., Egawa, Y., Sasaki, H., Far Infrared Rays, Japan, 1999.
Verlag, S., Heat Shock, 1991.
Viherjuuri, H.J., Sauna: The Finnish Bath, The Stephen Green Press, Brattleboro, VT, 1965.
Wilson, L., Nutritional Balancing and Hair Mineral Analysis, L.D. Wilson Consultants, Inc., 1998.
Wilson, L., Sauna Therapy, L.D. Wilson Consultants, Inc., 2003
Yamazaki, T., Science of Far Infrared Wave Therapies, Man and History Co., Tokyo, Japan, 1987.
Medical Journal Articles
Ahonen, E., et al, 1988, Fluid balance and the sauna, Duodecin., 104(8):609-14.
Antonachi, F., et al.,1998, Sweating patterns in humans: II. Heat-induced forehand sweating and cutaneous temperature in healthy individuals, Funct Neurol., 3(2)(Apr-Jun):2217-24.
Badermann, E., 1976, Aesthetic and physiological sensory perceptions in the original Finnish sauna, Sauna Studies, Papers read at the VI International Sauna Congress in Helsinki, August 15 17, 1974. The Finnish Sauna Society, Helsinki.
Baibekov, I.M., et al., 1994, The effects of low intensity infrared laser radiation on healing of dermatological wounds, Bull Eksp Biol Med., 119(2)(Feb):218-24.
Beard, J., 1902, Embriological aspects and the etiology of carcinoma, The Lancet, 1:1758.
Cherniaev, I.S., 1965, Investigation of the permeability of human skin to infrared radiation, Gig Sanit., 30(12)(Dec):20-24.
Chlamydial Heat Shock Proteins in Severe Disease, Dec. 2002, MEW, www.chalmydiae.com/chlamydiae/docs/biology/hsp
Cohn, J.R. and E.A. Emmett, 1978, The excretion of trace metals in human sweat, Ann Clin and Lab Sci., 8(4):270-274.
Czarnowski, D.J., J. Gorski et al., 1991, Excretion of nitrogen compounds in sweat during sauna, Pol Tyg Lek., 46(8-10)(Feb. 18-Mar 4):186-187.
Danno, K. and N. Sugie, 1996, Effects of near-infrared radiation on the epidermal proliferation and cutaneous immune function in mice, Photodermal Photoimmuniol Photomed, 12(6)(Dec):233 6.
Didierjean, L., D. Gruaz, Y. Frober, J.Grassi, J.M. Dayer, J.H. Saurat, 1990, Biologically active interleukin in human eccrine sweat: site dependent variations in alpha/beta ratios and stress induced increased excretion, Cytokine.,2(6)(Nov):438-46.
Dritschilo, A., et al., 1981, Therapeutic implication of heat as related to radiation therapy, Semin Oncol., 8(1)(March):83-91.
Eck, P., 1981, A beginning course on energy and minerals, Healthview Newsletter, (27-29):1-44. Eck Institute of Applied Nutrition and Bioenergetics, Ltd.
Eells, J.T.et al, 2003, Therapeutic photobiomodulation for methanol-induced retinal toxicity, Proc Natl Acad of Sci., doi:10.1073/pnas.05347461000, March 7.
Ernst, E., P. Wirz, T. Saradeth, 1990, Regular sauna bathing and the incidence of common colds, Ann Med., 22(4):225-7.
Flickstein, A., 2000, Healthmate infrared saunas, Townsend Letter for Doctors, 202(May):66-70.
Gard, Z.R. and E.J. Brown, 1992-1999, History of sauna/hyperthermia; Past and present efficacy in detoxification, Townsend Letter for Doctors, June 1992:470-478, July 1992:650-660, Oct. 1992:846-854, Aug-Sept 1999:76-86.
Goncalves, E., 2001, The secret nuclear war, The Ecologist, 31(3)April:28-33.
Graeffe, G., et al., 1996, The ions in sauna air, Sauna Studies, Papers read at the VI International Sauna Congress in Helsinki, August 15-17, 1974. The Finnish Sauna Society, Helsinki.
Gumener, P.I., O.V. Kaisina, L.G. Nadezhina, T.V. Shumkova, 1994,The individual measuring of the health-promoting impact of the sauna on preschoolers, Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fix Kult, (5)(Sept-Oct):32-5.
“Heat Shock Proteins: New Avenue to Cancer Vaccines”, Cancer Research Institute, New York, 2002.
Helamaa, E. and E. Aikas, 1988, The secret of good ‘loyly’, Ann Clin Res., 20(4):224-9.
Honda, K. and S. Inoue, 1988, Sleep-enhancing effects of far infrared radiation in rats, Int J Biometeorol., 32(2)(June):92-4.
Hrnjak, M., 1985, The effect of infrared irradiation on the human body, Arh Hig Rada Toksikol., 36(2)(June):201-18.
Ikeda, Y. and C. Tei, 2002, Effect of repeated sauna therapy on survival of TO-2 cardiomyopathic hampsters with heart failure, Am J Cardiology, 90(Aug 1):343-345.
Inoue, S. and M. Kabaya, 1989, Biological activities caused by far infrared radiation, Int J Biometeorol, 33(3)(Oct):145-50.
Ise, N., T. Katsuura, Y. Kikuchi and E. Miwa, 1987, Effect of far-infrared radiation on forearm skin blood flow, Ann Physiol Anthropol., 6(1)(Jan):31-32.
Jenssen, T.G., H.H. Haukland, P.G. Burhol, 1988, Brain-gut peptides in sauna-induced hyperthermia, Acta Physiol Scand., 132(4)(April):519-523.
Jezova, D., R. Kvetnansky, M. Vigas, 1994, Sex differences in endocrine response to hyperthermia in sauna, Acta Physiol Scand., 150(3)(March):293-298.
Jiang, P. and L. Luo, 1997, The effect of far infrared rays on the survival of randomized skin flap in the rat: an experimental study, Chung Kuo Hsiu Fu Chung Chien Wai Ko Tsa Chih., 11(2)(March):69-71.
Jokinen, E., I. Valimaki, J. Marniemi, A. Seppanen, K. Irjala, O. Simell, 1991, Children in sauna: hormonal adjustments to intensive short thermal stress, Acta Physiol Scand., 142(3)(July):437 442.
Junaid, A.J., 1986, Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with infrared heat, Int J Dermatol., 25(7)(Sept):470-2.
Jurasunas, S., 2000, A far-infrared ray emitting stone (SGES) to treat cancer and degenerative diseases, Townsend Letter for Doctors, 203(June):123-134.
Kaderavek, R., 1965, Thermoregulatory changes during application of infrared radiation, Fysiatr Revmatol Vestn., 43(5)(Sept):301-9.
Kaderavek, R., 1971, Absorption and heat transport during application of infrared radiation, Fysiatr Revmatol Vestn., 51(1)(Feb):14-20.
Kaidbey, K.H., et al., 1982, The influence of infrared radiation on short-term ultraviolet radiation-induced injuries, Arch Dermatol., 118(5)(May):315-18.
Kauppinen, K., et al., 1986, Man in the sauna, Ann Clin Res., 18(4):173-185.
Khish, I.P., 1973, Effect of low doses of infrared radiation on the sympathetic-adrenal system of children, Pediatr Akush Ginekol., 6:23-24.
Kihara, T., et al., 2002, Repeated sauna treatment improves vascular endothelial and cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure, J Am Coll of Cardiology, 39(March 6):754-759.
Kihara, T. et al, 2002, Sauna therapy decreases cardiac arrhymias in patients with chronic heart failure, Am Heart Assn Scientific Sessions, Nov. 17-20, Chicago.
Kilburn, K.H., R. H. Warsaw, M.G. Shields, 1989, Neurobehavioral dysfunction in firemen exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs):possible improvement after detoxification, Arch Environ Health, 44(6)(Nov-Dec):345-50.
Krop, J. and J. Swierczek, 1987/1988, Patient with severe intractable asthma, urticaria and irritable bowel syndrome: Response to sauna therapy, Clin Ecology, 5:136-139.
Krop, J., 1998, Chemical sensitivity after intoxication at work with solvents: response to sauna therapy, J Altern Complementary Med., 4(1)(Spring):77-86.
Kukkonen-Jarjula, K., and K. Jkauppinen, 1998, How the sauna affects the endocrine system, Ann Clin Res., 20(4):262-6.
Libert, J.P., et al., 1983, Modifications of sweating responses to thermal transients following heat acclimation, Eur J Appl Physiol., 50(2):235-46.
Linetskii, M.L., 1965, Thermoregulation under the effect of infrared radiation, Gig Sanit.,30(7)(July):115-17.
Lovejoy, H.B., Z.G. Bell, T.R. Vizena, 1973, Mercury exposure evaluations and their correlation with urine mercury excretion: 4. Elimination of mercury by sweating, J Occup Med.,15:590-591.
Marler, M.S., et al., Overexpression of the rat inducible 70-KD heat stress protein in a transgenic mouse increases the resistance of the heart to ischemic injury, 1995, J Clin Investigation, 95:1446-56.
Marmor, J.B.,et al., 1980, Combined radiation and hyperthermia in superficial human tumors, Cancer, 46(9)(Nov 1):1986-91.
Martin, W., 2003, Coley’s toxins for sarcoma and intractable cancer, Townsend Letter for Doctors, #235-236, (Feb/March):140-144.
McCluggage, D., 1971, The sauna experience, American Home, February.
Molchanov, I.S., 1968, The effects of low intensity infrared radiation on the organism, Gig Tr Prof Zabol., 12(11)(Nov):46-48.
Molchanov, I.S., et al., 1976, Use of low-intensity infrared radiation for the prevention of catarrhal diseases, Gig Tr Prof Zabol., 9(Sept):42-43.
Musin, R.F., et al., 1986, Sensitivity of human skin to infrared heat fluxes, Doki Akad Nauk SSSR., 289(3):718-20.
Niwa, Y., O. Lizawa, K. Ishimoto, X. Jiang, T, Kanoh, 1993, Electromagnetic wave emitting products and ‘Kikoh’ potentiate human leukocyte functions, Int J Biometeorol., 37(5)(Sept):133 8.
Niwa, Y., 1996, Jap J of Inflamm., 16(6)(Nov):4-9. (mechanisms of infrared-emitting stones)
Null, G. and M. Feldman, 2002, The fluoride controversy continues, parts 1,2 & 3, Townsend Letter for Doctors, #233, 234, 235(Dec., Jan., Feb.).
Ogita, S., et. al., 1990, Effects of far infrared radiation on lactation, Ann Physiol Anthropol., 9(2)(April):83-91.
Oosterveld, F.G.J., J.J. Rasker, M.A.F. Van de Laar, and G.J. Koel, Clinical effects of infrared whole-body hyperthermia in patients with rheumatic diseases, Departments of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Metisch Spectrum Twente and Univeristy Twente Enschede, PO Box 50000, 7500 KA Eschede, The Netherlands.
Parpalei, I.A., L.G. Prokofeva and V.G. Obertas, 1991, The use of the sauna for disease prevention in the workers of enterprises with chemical and physical occupational hazards, Vrach Delo., 5(May):93-5.
Rea, W.J., 1997, Thermal chamber depuration and physical therapy, Chemical Sensitivity, CRC Presss, Boca Raton, Fl, Vol. 4, Chap. 35, pp. 2433-2479.
Rea, W.J., Y. Pan, A.R. Johnson, 1991, Clearing of toxic volatile hydrocarbons from humans, Bol Asoc Med P R, 83(7)(July):321-4.
Rea, W.J., G.H. Ross, A.R. Johnson, R.E. Amiley, E.J. Fenyes, 1991, Chemical sensitivity in physicians, Bol Asoc Med P R, 83(9)(Sept):383-8.
Roehm, D.C., 1983, Effects of a program of sauna baths and metavitamins on adipose DDE and PCBs and on clearing of symptoms of agent orange (Dioxin) toxicity, Clin Research, 31(2):243.
Root, D.E. and G.T. Lionelli, 1987, Excretion of a lipophilic toxicant through the sebaceous glands: A case report, J Toxicol., 6(1):13-17.
Schnare, D.W., M. Ben and M.G. Shields, 1984, Body burden reductions of PCBs, PBBs and chlorinated pesticides in human subjects, Ambio 13(5-6):378-380.
Schnare, D.W., G. Genk, M.G. Shields and S. Brunton, 1982, Evaluation of a detoxification regimen for fat stored xenobiotics, Med Hypoth., 9:265-82.
Schnare, D.W. and P.C. Robinson, 1985, Reduction of hexachlorobenzene and ploychlorinated biphenyl human body burdens, Int. Agency for Research on Cancer, WHO, Scientific Publication Series, Vol. 77, Oxford University Press.
Sealre, A.J., 1982, Effects of the sauna, JAMA, 247(1)(Jan 1):28.
Sherson, D.L. and W. Stopford, 1986, Mercury levels in sweat. Its use in the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning, Ugeskr Laeger., 148(27)(June 30):1682-4.
Siewert, C., H. Siewert, H.J. Winterfield and D. Strangefield, 1994, The behavior of central and peripheral hemodynamics in isometric and dynamic stress in hypertensive patients: treatment with regular sauna therapy, Z Kardiol., 83(9)(Sept):652-7.
Sorri, P., 1988, The sauna and sauna bathing habits: A psychoanalytic point of view, Ann Clin Res., 20(4).
Strbak, V., P. Tatr, R. Angyal, V. Strec, K. Aksamitova, M. Vigas, H. Janosova, 1987, Effects of sauna and glucose intake on TSH and thyroid hormone levels in plasma of euthyroid subjects, Metabolism, 36(5)(May):426-31.
Tamura, Y., et al., 1997, Immunotherapy of tumors with autologous tumor-derived heat shock protein preparations, Science, 278:117-120.
Tei, C., Y, Horikiri, J.C. Park, J.W. Jeong, R.S. Chang, Y. Toyama, N. Tanaka, 1994, Effects of hot water bath or sauna on patients with congestive heart failure: acute hemodynamic improvement by thermal vasodilation, J Cardiol., 24(3)(May-June):175-83.
Vaha-Eskeli, K. and R. Ekkola, 1988, The sauna and pregnancy, Ann Clin Res., 20(4).
Vanakoski, J. and T. Seppala, 1997, Renal excretion of tetracycline is transiently decreased during short-term heat exposure, Int J Clin Parmacol Therapy, 35(5)(May):204-7.
Varanovski, I.M., 1967, On the use of infrared techniques in medicine, Voen Med Zh., 12:36-9.
Vescovi, P.P., and V.Coiro, 1993, Hyperthermia and endorphins, Biomed Pharmacother, 47(8):301-4.
Vuori, I., 1988, Healthy and unhealthy sauna bathing, Ann Clin Res., 20(4).
Wiedemann, E., 1965, Heat as a remedy, Landarzt, 44(32)(Nov 20):1586-90.
Winterfield, H.G, H. Siewert, D. Strangefield, H. Warnke, J. Kruse, U. Engelmann, 1992, Potential use of the sauna in the long-term treatment of hypertensive cardiovascular circulation disorders - a comparison with kinesiotherapy, Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax., 81(35)(Aug 25):1016-20.
Wyss, V., 1966, On the effects of radiant heat on different regions of the human body. Behavior of cardiocirculatory and respiratory activity, oxygen consumption, oral and skin temperature during infrared radiation of different areas in acclimatized and non-acclimatized subjects, Med Lav., 57(4)(April):262-85.
Ylikahri, R., E. Heikkonen and A. Suokas, 1988, The sauna and alcohol, Ann Clin Res., (20)4.
Zelentsova, S.P., 1968, Immunobiological reactivity of the organism under the effect of the interrupted infrared irradiation, Varach Delo., 12(Dec):88-91.
Zelentsova, S.P., 1970, The effects of intermittent infrared radiation on the status of natural immunological reactivity of workers Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 14(1)(Jan):22-6.